Journal of the Medical Library Association <p>The <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em><em> (JMLA)</em> is the premier journal in health sciences librarianship, dedicated to advancing the practice and research knowledgebase of health sciences librarianship and providing <a href="/ojs/jmla/pages/view/equity" target="_self">equitable opportunities</a> for authors, reviewers, and editorial team members.</p><p><span><a href="">Read issues of the <em>JMLA</em> prior to January 2016 on PMC</a></span></p> en-US (JMLA Editors) (OJS Technical Support) Tue, 16 Jan 2024 15:50:32 -0500 OJS 60 One leg at a time: medical librarians and fake news <p>While there has been recent media attention to the issue of “fake news,” misinformation and disinformation has been a lasting part of human history. This Janet Doe Lecture presents the history of fake news, how it is spread and accepted, its impact on medical and health information, and medical librarian roles in limiting its spread and promoting correct health information.</p> Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA Copyright (c) 2023 Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Erratum to “Rigor and reproducibility instruction in academic medical libraries,” 2022;110(3):281-93. <p>The PDF version of this article contained incorrect pagination from pages 281-290. The PDF has been updated to the correct pagination. The original article can be found via the DOI <a href=""></a>.</p> Katelyn Arnold Copyright (c) 2023 Katelyn Arnold Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Introducing the Journal of the Medical Library Association’s policy on the use of generative artificial intelligence in submissions <p>With the arrival of ChatGPT, the academic community has expressed concerns about how generative artificial intelligence will be used by students and researchers alike. After consulting policies from other journals and discussing among the editorial team, we have created a policy on the use of AI on submissions to <em>JMLA</em>. This editorial provides a brief background on these concerns and introduces our policy.</p> Jill T. Boruff, AHIP, Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA, Alexander J. Carrol, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Jill Boruff, AHIP, Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA, Alexander J. Carrol, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Continuing to evolve: opportunities to share technology enhancements with health sciences library peers through the Virtual Projects Section <p>Beginning in 2012, the Virtual Projects section of the Journal of the Medical Library Association has provided an opportunity for library leaders and technology experts to share with others how new technologies are being adopted by health sciences libraries. From educational purposes to online tools that enhance library services or access to resources, the Virtual Projects section brings technology use examples to the forefront. Virtual Projects highlighted in this year’s section include new ways to use virtual reality for library instruction, podcasting to share important health care messages with the Latino Community, enhancing findability by using options in a library management system, and developing a research profiling system. After a hiatus due to publishing changes in 2022, 2023 will bring some major changes for the section. The new publication issue for future Virtual Projects sections will be January and the call for submissions and Virtual Projects deadline will now take place in June and July.</p> Emily Hurst, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Emily Hurst, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Resource Review: EndNote 21 desktop version Terri Gotschall Copyright (c) 2023 Terri Gotschall Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Searches as data: archiving and sharing search strategies using an institutional data repository <p><strong>Background:</strong> By defining search strategies and related database exports as code/scripts and data, librarians and information professionals can expand the mandate of research data management (RDM) infrastructure to include this work. This new initiative aimed to create a space in McGill University’s institutional data repository for our librarians to deposit and share their search strategies for knowledge syntheses (KS).</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> The authors, a health sciences librarian and an RDM specialist, created a repository collection of librarian-authored knowledge synthesis (KS) searches in McGill University’s Borealis Dataverse collection. We developed and hosted a half-day “Dataverse-a-thon” where we worked with a team of health sciences librarians to develop a standardized KS data management plan (DMP), search reporting documentation, Dataverse software training, and how-to guidance for the repository.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In addition to better documentation and tracking of KS searches at our institution, the KS Dataverse collection enables sharing of searches among colleagues with discoverable metadata fields for searching within deposited searches. While the initial creation of the DMP and documentation took about six hours, the subsequent deposit of search strategies into the institutional data repository requires minimal effort (e.g., 5-10 minutes on average per deposit). The Dataverse collection also empowers librarians to retain intellectual ownership over search strategies as valuable stand-alone research outputs and raise the visibility of their labor. Overall, institutional data repositories provide specific benefits in facilitating compliance both with PRISMA-S guidance and with RDM best practices.</p> Alisa B. Rod, Jill T. Boruff, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Alisa Rod, Jill Boruff Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Alexander Fleming: a second look <p>In 1928, Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) identified penicillin, the world's first antibiotic. It was a chance discovery that could have easily been missed had Fleming not taken a second look at a contaminated Petri dish. The discovery of penicillin marked a profound turning point in history as it was the first time deadly infections such as bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, diphtheria, meningitis, and puerperal fever after childbirth could be cured, and it paved the way for the development of additional antibiotics. The Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum, one of several London Museums of Health and Medicine, is a reconstruction of Fleming’s laboratory in its original location at St. Mary’s Hospital. As if stepping back in time, visitors gain a glimpse into the man, his bacteriology work, and the events surrounding this important finding. For those unable to travel to London, this article provides a brief narrative of the fascinating story.</p> Danielle Gerberi Copyright (c) 2023 Danielle Gerberi Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Initial efforts to improve medical student information-seeking behavior with embedded library instruction <p><strong>Background</strong>: Medical students must develop self-directed information-seeking skills while they are learning vast amounts of foundational and clinical skills. Students will use different resources for different phases of their training. Information literacy training provided to students will be more impactful when it is embedded into courses or assignments that mimic real-world scenarios. The retention of these skills is also improved by early and frequent instruction sessions, paired with formative feedback from librarian-educators.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: Librarians received student responses to an information literacy question during two cycles of a Grand Rounds activity. Data were analyzed as follows: sources were grouped according to resource type and assessed for quality, and search terms were aggregated and analyzed to determine frequency of use. A librarian-educator presented the compiled data, making suggestions for improving searching and clarifying expectations for how to improve their resource choices for a second Grand Rounds session. Comparing the M2 Grand Rounds case to the M1 case of the same cohort, the frequency of evidence summary and diagnostic tool use increased and the frequency of search engine, textbook/lecture material, and journal article/database use decreased.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: In the real-world application of back-to-back Georgetown University’s Medical Center Grand Rounds exercises, librarian-led instruction on clinical-specific resources appears to be correlated with an improvement in medical students’ searching behavior. This trend supports the argument that introducing students early to librarian-led education on clinical-specific resources, and providing feedback on their searches, improves students’ information-seeking behavior.</p> Angela Barr Copyright (c) 2023 Angela Barr Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Straight to the point: evaluation of a Point of Care Information (POCI) resource in answering disease-related questions <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Objective:</span></strong> To evaluate the ability of DynaMedex, an evidence-based drug and disease Point of Care Information (POCI) resource, in answering clinical queries using keyword searches.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Methods:</span></strong> Real-world disease-related questions compiled from clinicians at an academic medical center, DynaMedex search query data, and medical board review resources were categorized into five clinical categories (complications &amp; prognosis, diagnosis &amp; clinical presentation, epidemiology, prevention &amp; screening/monitoring, and treatment) and six specialties (cardiology, endocrinology, hematology-oncology, infectious disease, internal medicine, and neurology). A total of 265 disease-related questions were evaluated by pharmacist reviewers based on if an answer was found (yes, no), whether the answer was relevant (yes, no), difficulty in finding the answer (easy, not easy), cited best evidence available (yes, no), clinical practice guidelines included (yes, no), and level of detail provided (detailed, limited details).</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Results:</span></strong> An answer was found for 259/265 questions (98%). Both reviewers found an answer for 241 questions (91%), neither found the answer for 6 questions (2%), and only one reviewer found an answer for 18 questions (7%). Both reviewers found a relevant answer 97% of the time when an answer was found. Of all relevant answers found, 68% were easy to find, 97% cited best quality of evidence available, 72% included clinical guidelines, and 95% were detailed. Recommendations for areas of resource improvement were identified.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Conclusions:</span></strong> The resource enabled reviewers to answer most questions easily with the best quality of evidence available, providing detailed answers and clinical guidelines, with a high level of replication of results across users.</p> Rachel Leah Wasserman, Diane L. Seger, Mary G. Amato, Zoe Co, Aqsa Mugal, Angela Rui, Pamela M. Garabedian, Marlika Marceau, Ania Syrowatka, Lynn A. Volk, David W. Bates Copyright (c) 2023 Rachel L. Wasserman; Diane L. Seger; Mary G. Amato; Zoe Co; Aqsa Mugal; Angela Rui; Pamela M. Garabedian; Marlika Marceau; Ania Syrowatka; Lynn A. Volk; David W. Bates Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Recognizing the value of meta-research and making it easier to find <p>Meta-research is a bourgeoning field studying topics with significant relevance to health sciences librarianship, such as research reproducibility, peer review, and open access. As a discipline that studies research itself and the practices of researchers, meta-research spans disciplines and encompasses a broad spectrum of topics and methods. The breadth of meta-research presents a significant challenge for identifying published meta-research studies. Introducing a subject heading for meta-research in the controlled vocabularies of literature databases has the potential to increase the visibility of meta-research, further advance the field, and expand its impact on research practices. Given the relatively recent designation of meta-research as a field and its expanding use as a term, now is the time to develop appropriate indexing vocabulary. We seek to call attention to the value of meta-research for health sciences librarianship, describe the challenges of identifying meta-research literature with currently available key terms, and highlight the need to establish controlled vocabulary specific to meta-research.</p> Elizabeth Stevens, Gregory Laynor Copyright (c) 2023 Elizabeth Stevens, Gregory Laynor Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Lost in translation: the history of the Ebers Papyrus and Dr. Carl H. von Klein <p>While the Ebers Papyrus is understood to be one of the oldest and most complete contemporaneous perspectives on Ancient Egyptian healing practices, nothing has yet been said about the biography of its first English-language translator, Dr. Carl H. von Klein. A German immigrant and surgeon in the American Midwest, von Klein spent twenty-some years meticulously translating and annotating the Papyrus, but ultimately his manuscript was destroyed. In this paper, we examine the societal- and personal-scale forces that thwarted his efforts to transform our understanding of the history of medicine.</p> Jane Hartsock, Colin Halverson Copyright (c) 2023 Jane Hartsock, Colin Halverson Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Journals accepting case reports <p><strong>Background</strong>: Few resources exist to support finding journals that accept case reports by specialty. In 2016, Katherine Akers compiled a list of 160 journals that accepted case reports, which many librarians continue to use 7 years later. Because journals’ editorial policies and submission guidelines evolve, finding publication venues for case reports poses a dynamic problem, consisting of reviewing a journal’s author guidelines to determine if the journal accepts case report manuscripts. This project aimed to create a more up to date and extensive list of journals that currently accept case reports.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: 1,874 journal titles were downloaded from PubMed. The team reviewed each journal and identified journal titles that accept case reports. Additional inclusion factors included being indexed in MEDLINE, accessible on the internet, and accepting and publishing English language submissions.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The new journal list includes 1,028 journals covering 129 specialties and is available on the Open Science Framework public page.</p> Terri Gotschall, Angela Spencer, Margaret A. Hoogland, Elisa Cortez, Elizabeth Irish Copyright (c) 2023 Terri Gotschall, Angela Spencer, Margaret A. Hoogland, Elisa Cortez, Elizabeth Irish Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Validation of an interprofessional education search strategy in PubMed to optimize IPE literature searching <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Objective</span>:</strong> With exponential growth in the publication of interprofessional education (IPE) research studies, it has become more difficult to find relevant literature and stay abreast of the latest research. To address this gap, we developed, evaluated, and validated search strategies for IPE studies in PubMed, to improve future access to and synthesis of IPE research. These search strategies, or search hedges, provide comprehensive, validated sets of search terms for IPE publications.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><span style="font-size: 1.0pt; font-family: ZWAdobeF; color: windowtext;">1B</span><strong>Methods:</strong></span> The search strategies were created for PubMed using relative recall methodology. The research methods followed the guidance of previous search hedge and search filter validation studies in creating a gold standard set of relevant references using systematic reviews, having expert searchers identify and test search terms, and using relative recall calculations to validate the searches’ performance against the gold standard set.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><span style="font-size: 1.0pt; font-family: ZWAdobeF; color: windowtext;">2B</span><strong>Results:</strong></span> The three recommended search hedges for IPE studies presented had recall of 71.5%, 82.7%, and 95.1%; the first more focused for efficient literature searching, the last with high recall for comprehensive literature searching, and the remaining hedge as a middle ground between the other two options.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><span style="font-size: 1.0pt; font-family: ZWAdobeF; color: windowtext;">3B</span><strong>Conclusion:</strong></span> These validated search hedges can be used in PubMed to expedite finding relevant scholarships, staying up to date with IPE research, and conducting literature reviews and evidence syntheses.</p> Rebecca Carlson, Sophie Nachman, Lisa de Saxe Zerden, Nandita Mani Copyright (c) 2023 Rebecca Carlson; Sophie Nachman; Lisa de Saxe Zerden; Nandita Mani Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Resource Review: ActivePresenter v9 Stephanie M. Swanberg, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Stephanie M. Swanberg, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Medical libraries and their complicated past: an exploration of the historical connections between medical collections and racial science <p class="AbstractParagraph">For over a millennium, libraries and library workers have advanced the knowledge of human science by building, preserving, and sharing collections and research. Historically, libraries have also aligned their institutional responsibilities to adhere to and support the values and virtues of oppressive and colonial practices. Library history has shown the mistreatments and denials of information access of marginalized groups. The history of libraries in the health and medical sciences reveals how these institutions and their workers have preserved and circulated research studies perpetuating racial science. This commentary highlights how such institutions shape and contribute to racial science in the field of medicine. By exploring the history of medicine through this lens, we examine how such institutions have been complicit in upholding racial science. We explore historical documents and archival collections that have been collected and preserved, particularly records and data of vulnerable groups, to advance the knowledge and understanding of the human body through the ideology of racial science. We argue that health and medical sciences librarians need to critically interrogate the racism in medical libraries and its history and address how health misinformation is common even in scholarly publications.</p> Raymond Pun, Patrice R. Green, Nicollette Davis Copyright (c) 2023 Raymond Pun, Patrice R. Green, Nicollette Davis Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Decoding the Misinformation-Legislation Pipeline: an analysis of Florida Medicaid and the current state of transgender healthcare <p><strong>Background</strong>: The state of evidence-based transgender healthcare in the United States has been put at risk by the spread of misinformation harmful to transgender people. Health science librarians can alleviate the spread of misinformation by identifying and analyzing its flow through systems that affect access to healthcare.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The author developed the theory of the Misinformation - Legislation Pipeline by studying the flow of anti-transgender misinformation from online echo chambers through a peer-reviewed article and into policy enacted to ban medical treatments for transgender people in the state of Florida. The analysis is precluded with a literature review of currently accepted best practices in transgender healthcare, after which, the author analyzes the key report leveraged by Florida’s Department of Health in its ban. A critical analysis of the report is followed by a secondary analysis of the key peer-reviewed article upon which the Florida Medicaid authors relied to make the decision. The paper culminates with a summation of the trajectory of anti-transgender misinformation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Misinformation plays a key role in producing legislation harmful to transgender people. Health science librarians have a role to play in identifying misinformation as it flows through the Misinformation - Legislation Pipeline and enacting key practices to identify, analyze, and oppose the spread of harmful misinformation.</p> Catherine Lockmiller Copyright (c) 2023 Catherine Lockmiller Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 More than just pronouns – gender-neutral and inclusive language in patient education materials: suggestions for patient education librarians <p>Trusted patient education materials are the backbone of an effective consumer health library. However, members of the LGBTQ+ community may not see themselves or their families reflected in many resources due to the gendered and non-inclusive language they are written in. This article outlines some suggestions for concrete actions that patient librarians can take to ensure that their materials are not excluding LGBTQ+ patients.</p> Eleni Philippopoulos Copyright (c) 2023 Eleni Philippopoulos Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Meeting a need: development and validation of PubMed search filters for immigrant populations <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Objective:</span> </strong>There is a need for additional comprehensive and validated filters to find relevant references more efficiently in the growing body of research on immigrant populations. Our goal was to create reliable search filters that direct librarians and researchers to pertinent studies indexed in PubMed about health topics specific to immigrant populations.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Methods:</span> </strong>We applied a systematic and multi-step process that combined information from expert input, authoritative sources, automation, and manual review of sources. We established a focused scope and eligibility criteria, which we used to create the development and validation sets. We formed a term ranking system that resulted in the creation of two filters: an immigrant-specific and an immigrant-sensitive search filter.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Results:</span></strong> When tested against the validation set, the specific filter sensitivity was 88.09%, specificity 97.26%, precision 97.88%, and the NNR 1.02. The sensitive filter sensitivity was 97.76%when tested against the development set. The sensitive filter had a sensitivity of 97.14%, specificity of 82.05%, precision of 88.59%, accuracy of 90.94%, and NNR [See Table 1] of 1.13 when tested against the validation set.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Conclusion:</span></strong> We accomplished our goal of developing PubMed search filters to help researchers retrieve studies about immigrants. The specific and sensitive PubMed search filters give information professionals and researchers options to maximize the specificity and precision or increase the sensitivity of their search for relevant studies in PubMed. Both search filters generated strong performance measurements and can be used as-is, to capture a subset of immigrant-related literature, or adapted and revised to fit the unique research needs of specific project teams (e.g. remove US-centric language, add location-specific terminology, or expand the search strategy to include terms for the topic/s being investigated in the immigrant population identified by the filter). There is also a potential for teams to employ the search filter development process described here for their own topics and use.</p> Q. Eileen Wafford, AHIP, Corinne H. Miller, Annie B. Wescott, Ramune K. Kubilius, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Q. Eileen Wafford, AHIP; Corinne H. Miller; Annie B. Wescott; Ramune K. Kubilius, AHIP Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Looking back, looking forward <p>The second half of 2022 was a time of much change at the <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em> (<em>JMLA</em>). We hope to lead this journal with transparency, and in this spirit, we wanted to give you an overview of what we have done since we were appointed as coeditors in chief (co-EICs) in June 2022.</p> Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Copyright (c) 2023 Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 122nd Annual Meeting, Medical Library Association, Inc., New Orleans, LA, May 3-6, 2022 <p>The Medical Library Association (MLA) held its 122nd annual meeting May 3-6, 2022, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The meeting was entitled “MLA ’22: Reconnect. Renew. Reflect” and utilized a hybrid model with some events in person, and some virtually.</p> JJ Pionke, Ellen M. Aaronson Copyright (c) 2023 JJ Pionke, Ellen M. Aaronson Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Naomi Cordero Broering (1929-2023) Alan Carr, AHIP, Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA Copyright (c) 2023 Alan Carr Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Thank you to the Journal of the Medical Library Association reviewers in 2021 and 2022 <p>We sincerely thank the 214 peer reviewers in 2021 and the 171 peer reviewers in 2022 who helped evaluate and improve the quality of work published in the <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em> (JMLA).</p> Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Copyright (c) 2023 Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Developing and conducting a language inclusivity assessment on a health science library’s website, LibGuides, and signage <p class="AbstractParagraph"><strong><span class="TitleInline">Background:</span></strong> A Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) Team at a university health science library created a checklist for inclusive language and conducted an assessment of their library’s website, LibGuides, and physical and digital signage. Inclusive language was defined as “language that is free from words, phrases or tones that reflect prejudiced, stereotyped or discriminatory views of particular people or groups”.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><span style="font-size: 1.0pt; font-family: ZWAdobeF; color: windowtext;">1B</span><strong>Case Presentation:</strong></span> The 32-item checklist facilitated the identification of gendered language, stereotypes, ableist language, racist language, stigmatizing language, slang, acronyms, and out-of-date terminology regarding physical and mental health conditions. From the library’s website, 20 instances were noted for which improvements were necessary. Out of the 130 LibGuides reviewed, 23 LibGuides had no changes needed and 107 had changes identified relating to language inclusivity (14 strongly recommended changes and 116 suggested changes). Regarding the signage, one flyer was removed for reprinting.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><span style="font-size: 1.0pt; font-family: ZWAdobeF; color: windowtext;">2B</span><strong>Conclusion: </strong></span>The checklist enabled the team to implement a number of improvements to the library’s website and LibGuides. The checklist has been shared with Library Technology Services and the wider campus libraries’ Usability Committee for future use, and has also been added to the DEI Team’s LibGuide for use by others outside of the university.</p> Jane Morgan-Daniel, AHIP, Hannah F. Norton, AHIP, Mary E. Edwards, Matthew Daley Copyright (c) 2023 Jane Morgan-Daniel, Hannah F Norton, Mary E Edwards, Matthew Daley Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Errata for Issue 110 (3) <p>“Rigor and reproducibility instruction in academic medical libraries,” 2022;110(3):281-93. The PDF and metadata as published contained an incorrect author last name. The correct author name is Tisha Mentnech.</p> <p>“Determining COVID-19’s impact on an academic medical library’s literature search service,”2022;110(3):316-22. The PDF as published contained an incorrect author last name. The correct author name is David Petersen.</p> <p>“In Memoriam: Virginia M. Bowden,” 2022;110(3):381-82. The article was published with incorrect HTML title and author affiliation information. The correct affiliation for Janna C. Lawrence is Director.</p> Katelyn Arnold Copyright (c) 2023 Katelyn Arnold Fri, 24 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Health sciences library workshops in the COVID era: librarian perceptions and decision making <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Objective</strong>:</span> We sought to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted academic health sciences library workshops. We hypothesized that health sciences libraries moved workshops online during the height of the pandemic and that they continued to offer workshops virtually after restrictions were eased. Additionally, we believed that attendance increased.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Methods</strong>:</span> In March 2022, we invited 161 Association of American Health Sciences Libraries members in the US and Canada to participate in a Qualtrics survey about live workshops. Live workshops were defined as synchronous; voluntary; offered to anyone regardless of school affiliation; and not credit-bearing. Three time periods were compared, and a chi square test of association was conducted to evaluate the relationship between time period and workshop format.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Results</strong>:</span> Seventy-two of 81 respondents offered live workshops. A chi square test of association indicated a significant association between time period and primary delivery method, chi-square (4, N=206) = 136.55, p&lt; .005. Before March 2020, 77% of respondents taught in person. During the height of the pandemic, 91% taught online and 60% noted higher attendance compared to pre-pandemic numbers. During the second half of 2021, 65% of workshops were taught online and 43% of respondents felt that attendance was higher than it was pre-pandemic. Overall workshop satisfaction was unchanged (54%) or improved (44%).</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span>Most health sciences librarians began offering online workshops following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of respondents were still teaching online in the second half of 2021. Some respondents reported increased attendance with similar levels of satisfaction.</p> Nell Aronoff, Molly K. Maloney, Amy G. Lyons, Elizabeth Stellrecht Copyright (c) 2023 Nell Aronoff, Molly K. Maloney, Amy G. Lyons, Elizabeth Stellrecht Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400