Development and validation of a modified LibQUAL scale in health sciences libraries: application of Structural Equation Modeling
Keywords:Consumer services, Quality, Health sciences libraries, LibQUAL, Instrument validity and reliability, Psychometric evaluation, Scale development
Objective: The application of structural equation modeling (SEM), a statistical modeling tool for scale construction and development, is becoming increasingly popular in the health sciences librarianship and information science research. This study explores the application of SEM to health science libraries by describing the development and validation of a modified LibQUAL scale within an Iranian health sciences library setting.
Methods: A literature search was performed across several information sources to identify candidate items to be included in the primary questionnaire. After translation, linguistic validation, and a pilot study, two cross-sectional studies were performed. SEM modeling framework was used for the assessment of the reliability and validity of the modified LibQUAL scale. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated by measuring Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and composite reliability. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for the evaluation of the construct validity of the scale. Smart-PLS software was used for statistical modeling.
Results: Composite reliability and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each scale ranged between 0.90 and 0.95, indicating adequate internal consistency with the LibQUAL scale. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor model of the LibQUAL scale. The convergent validity of the scale was supported, as the average variances extracted for all proposed factors were above 0.50. The discriminant validity was also confirmed using Fornel and Larcker and Heterotrait–Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) methods.
Conclusion: Evaluation of psychometric properties of the translated and locally modified LibQUAL in the Persian language indicated adequate reliability, factorial validity, and stability of this instrument for Iranian health sciences libraries.
Wei Y, Thompson B, Cook CC. Scaling users' perceptions of library service quality using item response theory: A LibQUAL+ TM study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy. 2005;5(1):93-104. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2005.0014.
Thompson B, Cook C, Kyrillidou M. Concurrent validity of LibQUAL+™ scores: what do LibQUAL+™ scores measure? The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 2005;31(6):517-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2005.08.002.
Association of Research Libraries. What is LIBQUAL 2011 [cited 2019 10/2]. Available from: http://www.libqual.org/about/about_lq/general_info.
Association of Research Libraries. LibQUAL+® Monthly Update 2012 [cited 2019 10/2]. Available from: https://www.libqual.org/news/1295.
Rehman SU, Kyrillidou M, Hameed I. Reliability and validity of a modified LibQUAL+® survey in Pakistan: An Urdu language experience. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science. 2017;19(2).
Morales M, Ladhari R, Reynoso J, Toro R, Sepulveda C. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a Spanish version of LibQUAL+™. Performance Measurement and Metrics. 2011;12(1):23-37. https://doi.org/10.1108/14678041111124270.
Lane FC, Anderson B, Ponce HF, Natesan P. Factorial invariance of LibQUAL+® as a measure of library service quality over time. Libr Inf Sci Res. 2012;34(1):22-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2011.07.004.
Hariri N, Afnani F. LibQUAL+ TM in Iran: a subgroup analysis by gender. Performance Measurement and Metrics. 2008;9(2):80-93. https://doi.org/10.1108/14678040810906790.
Farajpahlou A, Shams EM. A new approach in the studies of quality measurement of library services. Studies in Library & Information Science (Journal of Education and Psychology). 2009;1-16(3):29-60.
Najafgolinejad A, Hasanzadeh M. Evaluation of Collection, Staff and Space of the Central Library of Tarbiyat Modarress University based on LibQUAL Instrument. Iranian Journal of Information Processing and Management. 2009;25(1):131-52.
Asemi A, Kazempour Z, Ashrafi Rizi H. Using LibQUAL+ TM to improve services to libraries: A report on academic libraries of Iran experience. The Electronic Library. 2010;28(4):568-79. https://doi.org/10.1108/02640471011065382.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis: Pearson new international edition PDF eBook: Pearson Higher Ed; 2013.
Dragan D, Topolšek D, editors. Introduction to structural equation modeling: review, methodology and practical applications. The International Conference on Logistics & Sustainable Transport; 2014.
Sarstedt M, Ringle CM, Smith D, Reams R, Hair Jr JF. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): A useful tool for family business researchers. Journal of Family Business Strategy. 2014;5(1):105-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2014.01.002.
Bido D, Da Silva D, Ringle C. Bido, D., da Silva, D., & Ringle, C.(2014). Structural Equation Modeling with the Smartpls. Brazilian Journal Of Marketing. 2015;13(2). https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v13i2.2717.
Ringle C, Da Silva D, Bido D. Structural equation modeling with the SmartPLS. Bido, D, da Silva, D, & Ringle, C(2014) Structural Equation Modeling with the Smartpls Brazilian Journal Of Marketing. 2015;13(2).
Brunner M, SÜβ H-M. Analyzing the reliability of multidimensional measures: An example from intelligence research. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2005;65(2):227-40.
Hair J, Black W, Babin B. Anderson.(2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. Delhi: Pearson.
Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research. 1981;18(1):39-50.
Hair JF, Anderson RE, Babin BJ, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (Vol. 7). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson; 2010.
Hair Jr JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): Sage publications; 2021.
Hair JF, Henseler J, Dijkstra TK, Sarstedt M. Common beliefs and reality about partial least squares: comments on Rönkkö and Evermann. Organ Res Methods. 2014;17(2):182-209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114526928.
Ab Hamid M, Sami W, Sidek MM, editors. Discriminant validity assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT criterion. Journal of Physics: Conference Series; 2017: IOP Publishing.
Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3. Baskı). New York, NY: Guilford. 2011;14:1497-513.
Kamis A, Saibon RA, Yunus F, Rahim MB, Herrera LM, Montenegro P. The SmartPLS analyzes approach in validity and reliability of graduate marketability instrument. Social Psychology of Education. 2020;57(8):987-1001.
Wong KK-K. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin. 2013;24(1):1-32.
Lohmöller J-B. Latent variable path modeling with partial least squares. : Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.
Kyrillidou M, Olshen T, Heath F, Bonnelly C, Cote J-P, editors. Cross-cultural implementation of LibQUAL+™: the French language experience. 5th Northumbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services; 2003; Durham, UK.
Cook C, Heath FM. Users' perceptions of library service quality: A LibQUAL+ qualitative study. 2001.
Thompson B, Cook C. Stability of the Reliability of LibQual+™ Scores a Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis Study. Educ Psychol Meas. 2002;62(4):735-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164402062004013.
Thompson B, Cook C, Heath F. Two short forms of the LibQUAL+ survey: Assessing users' perceptions of library service quality. Libr Q. 2003;73(4):453-65. https://doi.org/10.1086/603441.
Kyrillidou M, Heath FM. The Starving Research Library User: Relationships Between Library Institutional Characteristics and Spring 2002 LibQUAL+ (™) Scores. J Libr Adm. 2004;40(3-4):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1300/J111v40n03_01.
Thompson B, Kyrillidou M, Cook C. How you can evaluate the integrity of your library service quality assessment data: Intercontinental LibQUAL+® analyses used as concrete heuristic examples. Performance Measurement and Metrics. 2008;9(3):202-15. https://doi.org/10.1108/14678040810928426.
Copyright (c) 2023 Sirous Panahi, Azam Bazrafshani, Abbas Mirzaie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.