PRISMA-S: an extension to the PRISMA statement for reporting literature searches in systematic reviews




Systematic Reviews, Reporting Guidelines, Search Strategies, Literature Search, Information Retrieval, Reproducibility


Background: Literature searches underlie the foundations of systematic reviews and related review types. Yet, the literature searching component of systematic reviews and related review types is often poorly reported. Guidance for literature search reporting has been diverse and, in many cases, does not offer enough detail to authors who need more specific information about reporting search methods and information sources in a clear, reproducible way. This document presents the PRISMA-S (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses literature search extension) checklist, and explanation and elaboration.

Methods: The checklist was developed using a three-stage Delphi survey process, followed by a consensus conference and public review process.

Results: The final checklist includes sixteen reporting items, each of which is detailed with exemplar reporting and rationale.

Conclusions:The intent of PRISMA-S is to complement the PRISMA Statement and its extensions by providing a checklist that could be used by interdisciplinary authors, editors, and peer reviewers to verify that each component of a search is completely reported and, therefore, reproducible.


Lefebvre C, Glanville J, Briscoe S, Littlewood A, Marshall C, Metzendorf MI, Noel-Storr A, Rader T, Shokraneh F, Thomas J, Wieland L. Searching for and selecting studies. In: Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page M, Welch V, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 6.0. Cochrane; 2019.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Systematic reviews: CRD’s guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. 1.3 Undertaking the review [Internet]. The Centre, University of York; 2009 [cited 31 Jan 2020]. <>.

Lefebvre C, Glanville J, Briscoe S, Littlewood A, Marshall C, Metzendorf MI. Technical supplement to chapter 4: searching for and selecting studies. In: Higgins JPT, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 6.0: Cochrane; 2019.

Relevo R, Balshem H. Finding evidence for comparing medical interventions: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Nov;64(11):1168–77. DOI:

Institute of Medicine (US), Committee on Standards for Systematic Reviews of Comparative Effectiveness Research, Eden J. Finding what works in health care: standards for systematic reviews. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.

European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA). Process of information retrieval for systematic reviews and health technology assessments on clinical effectiveness: guideline; version 2.0 [Internet]. Diemen, The Netherlands: EUnetHTA; 2019 [cited 31 Jan 2020]. <>.

Sampson M, McGowan J, Tetzlaff J, Cogo E, Moher D. No consensus exists on search reporting methods for systematic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008 Aug;61(8):748–54. DOI:

Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2009 Jul 21;6(7):e1000100. DOI:

Page MJ, Moher D. Evaluations of the uptake and impact of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement and extensions: a scoping review. Syst Rev. 2017;6(1):263. DOI:

Koffel JB, Rethlefsen ML. Reproducibility of search strategies is poor in systematic reviews published in high-impact pediatrics, cardiology and surgery journals: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0163309. DOI:

Faggion CM Jr., Wu YC, Tu YK, Wasiak J. Quality of search strategies reported in systematic reviews published in stereotactic radiosurgery. Br J Radiol. 2016 Jun;89(1062):20150878. DOI:

Layton D. A critical review of search strategies used in recent systematic reviews published in selected prosthodontic and implant-related journals: are systematic reviews actually systematic? Int J Prosthodont. 2017 Jan/Feb;30(1):13–21. DOI:

Yaylali IE, Alacam T. Critical assessment of search strategies in systematic reviews in endodontics. J Endod. 2016 Jun;42(6):854–60. DOI:

Page MJ, Shamseer L, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Sampson M, Tricco AC, Catalá-López F, Li L, Reid EK, Sarkis-Onofre R, Moher D. Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews of biomedical research: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2016;13(5):e1002028-e. DOI:

Koffel JB. Use of recommended search strategies in systematic reviews and the impact of librarian involvement: a cross-sectional survey of recent authors. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0125931. DOI:

Rethlefsen ML, Farrell AM, Osterhaus Trzasko LC, Brigham TJ. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Jun;68(6):617–26. DOI:

Meert D, Torabi N, Costella J. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews. J Med Libr Assoc. 2016 Oct;104(4):267–77. DOI:

Maggio LA, Tannery NH, Kanter SL. Reproducibility of literature search reporting in medical education reviews. Acad Med. 2011;86(8):1049–54. DOI:

Yoshii A, Plaut DA, McGraw KA, Anderson MJ, Wellik KE. Analysis of the reporting of search strategies in Cochrane systematic reviews. J Med Libr Assoc. 2009 Jan;97(1):21–9. DOI:

Franco JVA, Garrote VL, Escobar Liquitay CM, Vietto V. Identification of problems in search strategies in Cochrane reviews. Res Synth Methods. 2018;9(3):408–16. DOI:

Salvador-Oliván JA, Marco-Cuenca G, Arquero-Avilés R. Errors in search strategies used in systematic reviews and their effects on information retrieval. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2):210–21. DOI:

Sampson M, McGowan J. Errors in search strategies were identified by type and frequency. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;59(10):1057–63. DOI:

Mullins MM, DeLuca JB, Crepaz N, Lyles CM. Reporting quality of search methods in systematic reviews of HIV behavioral interventions (2000–2010): are the searches clearly explained, systematic and reproducible? Res Synth Methods. 2014;5(2):116–30. DOI:

Rader T, Mann M, Stansfield C, Cooper C, Sampson M. Methods for documenting systematic review searches: a discussion of common issues. Res Synth Methods. 2014 Jun;5(2):98–115. DOI:

Briscoe S. Web searching for systematic reviews: a case study of reporting standards in the UK Health Technology Assessment programme. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Apr 16;8:153. DOI:

Moher D, Stewart L, Shekelle P. All in the family: systematic reviews, rapid reviews, scoping reviews, realist reviews, and more. Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 22;4:183. DOI:

Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Inf Libr J. 2009 Jun;26(2):91–108. DOI:

Rethlefsen ML, Koffel JB, Kirtley S. PRISMA-Search (PRISMA-S) extension to PRISMA development protocol [Internet]. Equator Network; 2016 [cited 16 Jan 2020]. <>.

Moher D, Schulz KF, Simera I, Altman DG. Guidance for developers of health research reporting guidelines. PLoS Med. 2010;7(2):e1000217-e. DOI:

Hsu C, Sandford BA. The Delphi technique: making sense of consensus. Pract Assess Res Eval [Internet]. 2007;12(10). (Available from: <>. [cited 14 Jan 2021].)

Rethlefsen ML, Koffel JB, Kirtley S, Ayala AP, Waffenschmidt S. PRISMA-S: PRISMA search reporting extension [Internet]. Open Science Framework; 2019. DOI:

Hypothesis [Internet]. Hypothesis Project; 2020 [cited 3 Jan 2020]. <>.

Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, Shamseer L, Moher D. Updating the PRISMA reporting guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: study protocol [Internet]. 2018 [cited 13 Feb 2020]. <>.

Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, Shamseer L, Tetzlaff J, Akl EA, Brennan S, Chou R, Glanville J, Grimshaw J, Hróbjartsson A, Lalu M, Li T, Loder E, Mayo-Wilson E, McDonald S, McGuinness L, Stewart L, Thomas J, Tricco AC, Welch VA, Whiting P, Moher D. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews [Internet]. MetaArXiv Preprints; 2020. DOI:

Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, Shekelle P, Stewart LA; PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ. 2015 Jan 2;350:g7647. DOI:

PRISMA. Transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses [Internet]. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and University of Oxford; 2015 [cited 13 Feb 2020]. <>.

Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Feddermann-Demont N, Iverson GL, Hayden A, Makdissi M. Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jun;51(12):930–4. DOI:

Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Searching for studies [Internet]. Cochrane; 2011 [cited 25 Nov 2014]. <>.

Bramer WM, Rethlefsen ML, Kleijnen J, Franco OH. Optimal database combinations for literature searches in systematic reviews: a prospective exploratory study. Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 6;6(1):245. DOI:

National Library of Medicine. MEDLINE®: description of the database [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: The Library; 2019 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Elsevier. Embase content [Internet]. Elsevier; 2019 [cited 28 Feb 2019]. <>.

Elsevier. Scopus [Internet]. Elsevier; 2020 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

American Psychological Association. PsycInfo [Internet]. The Association; 2020 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

American Economic Association. EconLit [Internet]. The Association; 2020 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

BIREME, PAHO, WHO, Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information. LILACS [Internet]. Sao Paolo, Brazil: The Center; 2020 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

World Health Organization. African index medicus [Internet]. Brazzaville, Congo: The Organization; 2020 [cited 14 Jan 2021]. <>.

Craven J, Jefferies J, Kendrick J, Nicholls D, Boynton J, Frankish R. A comparison of searching the Cochrane library databases via CRD, Ovid and Wiley: implications for systematic searching and information services. Health Inf Libr J. 2014 Mar;31(1):54–63. DOI:

Bramer WM, Giustini D, Kleijnen J, Franco OH. Searching Embase and MEDLINE by using only major descriptors or title and abstract fields: a prospective exploratory study. Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 20;7(1):200. DOI:

Younger P, Boddy K. When is a search not a search? a comparison of searching the AMED complementary health database via EBSCOhost, OVID and DIALOG. Health Inf Libr J. 2009 Jun;26(2):126–35. DOI:

Fraser C, Murray A, Burr J. Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006 Aug 18;6:41. DOI:

De Cagna F, Fusar-Poli L, Damiani S, Rocchetti M, Giovanna G, Mori A, Politi P, Brondino N. The role of intranasal oxytocin in anxiety and depressive disorders: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2019 Feb 28;17(1):1–11. DOI:

McGowan J, Sampson M, Salzwedel DM, Cogo E, Foerster V, Lefebvre C. PRESS Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies: 2015 guideline statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Jul;75:40–6. DOI:

Rutjes AW, Juni P, da Costa BR, Trelle S, Nuesch E, Reichenbach S. Viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Aug 7;157(3):180–91. DOI:

Potthast R, Vervolgyi V, McGauran N, Kerekes MF, Wieseler B, Kaiser T. Impact of inclusion of industry trial results registries as an information source for systematic reviews. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e92067. DOI:

Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 17;358(3):252–60. DOI:

Baudard M, Yavchitz A, Ravaud P, Perrodeau E, Boutron I. Impact of searching clinical trial registries in systematic reviews of pharmaceutical treatments: methodological systematic review and reanalysis of meta-analyses. BMJ. 2017 Feb 17;356:j448. DOI:

Zarin DA, Tse T, Williams RJ, Carr S. Trial reporting in - the final rule. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 17;375(20):1998–2004. DOI:

Anderson ML, Chiswell K, Peterson ED, Tasneem A, Topping J, Califf RM. Compliance with results reporting at N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 12;372(11):1031–9. DOI:

DeVito NJ, Bacon S, Goldacre B. Compliance with legal requirement to report clinical trial results on a cohort study. Lancet. 2020 Jan 17;395(10221):361–9. DOI:

Stockdale J, Cassell J, Ford E. “Giving something back”: a systematic review and ethical enquiry into public views on the use of patient data for research in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Wellcome Open Res. 2018;3:6. DOI:

Mascarenhas M, Garasia S, Berthiaume P, Corrin T, Greig J, Ng V, Young I, Waddell L. A scoping review of published literature on chikungunya virus. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0207554. DOI:

Gates M, Wingert A, Featherstone R, Samuels C, Simon C, Dyson MP. Impact of fatigue and insufficient sleep on physician and patient outcomes: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2018 Sep 21;8(9):e021967. DOI:

Song F, Parekh-Bhurke S, Hooper L, Loke YK, Ryder JJ, Sutton AJ, Hing CB, Harvey I. Extent of publication bias in different categories of research cohorts: a meta-analysis of empirical studies. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009 Nov 26;9:79. DOI:

Egger M, Zellweger-Zahner T, Schneider M, Junker C, Lengeler C, Antes G. Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German. Lancet. 1997 Aug 2;350(9074):326–9. DOI:

Stansfield C, Dickson K, Bangpan M. Exploring issues in the conduct of website searching and other online sources for systematic reviews: how can we be systematic? Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 15;5(1):191. DOI:

Farrah K, Mierzwinski-Urban M. Almost half of references in reports on new and emerging nondrug health technologies are grey literature. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Jan;107(1):43–8. DOI:

Piasecki J, Waligora M, Dranseika V. Google search as an additional source in systematic reviews. Sci Eng Ethics. 2018 Apr;24(2):809–10. DOI:

Dax the duck. Measuring the “filter bubble”: how Google is influencing what you click. DuckDuckGo Blog [Internet]. 2018 [cited 6 Jan 2021]. <>.

Scherer RW, Meerpohl JJ, Pfeifer N, Schmucker C, Schwarzer G, von Elm E. Full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 20;11:MR000005. DOI:

McAuley L, Pham B, Tugwell P, Moher D. Does the inclusion of grey literature influence estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses? Lancet. 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1228–31. DOI:

ProceedingsFirst [Internet]. OCLC; 2018 [cited 28 Feb 2019]. <>.

Directory of published papers [Internet]. InterDok Media Services; 2019 [cited 15 Jan 2021]. <>.

International AIDS Society. Abstract archive [Internet]. The Society; 2019 [cited 6 Jan 2021]. <>.

Foster MJ, Jewell ST, eds. Assembling the pieces of a systematic review: guide for librarians. Medical Library Association Books Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield; 2017.

Stephens RJ, Dettmer MR, Roberts BW, Ablordeppey E, Fowler SA, Kollef MH, Fuller BM. Practice patterns and outcomes associated with early sedation depth in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar;46(3):471–9. DOI:

Kunneman M, Gionfriddo MR, Toloza FJK, Gartner FR, Spencer-Bonilla G, Hargraves IG, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Humanistic communication in the evaluation of shared decision making: a systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2018 Nov 12;102(3):452–66. DOI:

Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 7;9:CD004417. DOI:

Wright K, Golder S, Rodriguez-Lopez R. Citation searching: a systematic review case study of multiple risk behaviour interventions. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014 Jun 3;14:73. DOI:

Zarychanski R, Turgeon AF, McIntyre L, Fergusson DA. Erythropoietin-receptor agonists in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2007 Sep 25;177(7):725–34. DOI:

Degenhardt L, Peacock A, Colledge S, Leung J, Grebely J, Vickerman P, Stone J, Cunningham EB, Trickey A, Dumchev K, Lynskey M, Griffiths P, Mattick RP, Hickman M, Larney S. Global prevalence of injecting drug use and sociodemographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV in people who inject drugs: a multistage systematic review. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Dec;5(12):e1192–e207. DOI:

Kirkham JJ, Dwan KM, Altman DG, Gamble C, Dodd S, Smyth R, Williamson PR. The impact of outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials on a cohort of systematic reviews. BMJ. 2010 Feb 15;340:c365. DOI:

Hodkinson A, Dietz KC, Lefebvre C, Golder S, Jones M, Doshi P, Heneghan C, Jefferson T, Boutron I, Stewart L. The use of clinical study reports to enhance the quality of systematic reviews: a survey of systematic review authors. Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 8;7(1):117. DOI:

Musini VM, Lawrence KA, Fortin PM, Bassett K, Wright JM. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 5;4:CD007066. DOI:

Samarasekera N, Smith C, Al-Shahi Salman R. The association between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intracerebral haemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;83(3):275–81. DOI:

Tham T, Machado R, Khaymovich J, Costantino P. Detection of HPV16, HPV18, p16, and E6/E7 MRNA in nasopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis [Internet]. bioRXiv; 2018 [cited 6 Jan 2021]. <>.

Lin J, Wilbur WJ. PubMed related articles: a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity. BMC Bioinformatics. 2007 Oct 30;8:423. DOI:

Clarivate Analytics. Web of Science core collection help: Related records [Internet]. Clarivate Analytics; 2018 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Bennett KG, Berlin NL, MacEachern MP, Buchman SR, Preminger BA, Vercler CJ. The ethical and professional use of social media in surgery: a systematic review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Sep;142(3):388e–98e. DOI:

Varley-Campbell J, Cooper C, Wilkerson D, Wardle S, Greeves J, Lorenc T. Sex-specific changes in physical performance following military training: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2018 Nov;48(11):2623–40. DOI:

Chandler J, Churchill R, Higgins J, Lasserson T, Tovey D. Methodological standards for the conduct of new Cochrane Intervention Reviews: version 2.1 [Internet]. 2011 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Canadian Agency on Drugs and Technology in Health. Grey matters: a practical tool for searching health-related grey literature [Internet]. Ottawa, ON, Canada: The Agency; 2019 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Higgins J, Lasserson T, Chandler J, Tovey D, Churchill R. Methodological expectations of Cochrane intervention reviews [Internet]. London, UK: Cochrane; 2019 [cited 3 Jan 2020]. <>.

Kim Y. Fostering scientists’ data sharing behaviors via data repositories, journal supplements, and personal communication methods. Inform Process Manag. 2017 Jul;53(4):871–85. DOI:

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubMed Central [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine; 2021 [cited 9 Jan 2020]. <>.

Thomas LH, Coupe J, Cross LD, Tan AL, Watkins CL. Interventions for treating urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 1;2:CD004462. DOI:

Speer K, Upton D, Semple S, McKune A. Systemic low-grade inflammation in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. J Inflamm Res. 2018;11:111–21. DOI:

Rudmik L, Soler ZM. Medical therapies for adult chronic sinusitis: a systematic review. JAMA. 2015 Sep 1;314(9):926–39. DOI:

Joseph MS, Tincopa MA, Walden P, Jackson E, Conte ML, Rubenfire M. The impact of structured exercise programs on metabolic syndrome and its components: a systematic review. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019;12:2395–404. DOI:

Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, Breiding MJ, Haegerich TM, Gioia GA, Turner M, Benzel EC, Suskauer SJ, Giza CC, Joseph M, Broomand C, Weissman B, Gordon W, Wright DW, Moser RS, McAvoy K, Ewing-Cobbs L, Duhaime AC, Putukian M, Holshouser B, Paulk D, Wade SL, Herring SA, Halstead M, Keenan HT, Choe M, Christian CW, Guskiewicz K, Raksin PB, Gregory A, Mucha A, Taylor HG, Callahan JM, DeWitt J, Collins MW, Kirkwood MW, Ragheb J, Ellenbogen RG, Spinks TJ, Ganiats TG, Sabelhaus LJ, Altenhofen K, Hoffman R, Getchius T, Gronseth G, Donnell Z, O’Connor RE, Timmons SD. Diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury in children: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Nov 1;172(11):e182847. DOI:

Kugley S, Wade A, Thomas J, Mahood Q, Jørgensen A-MK, Hammerstrøm K, Sathe N. Searching for studies: a guide to information retrieval for Campbell systematic reviews. Campbell Syst Rev. 2017;13(1):1–73. DOI:

Iansavichene AE, Sampson M, McGowan J, Ajiferuke IS. Should systematic reviewers search for randomized, controlled trials published as letters? Ann Intern Med. 2008 May 6;148(9):714–5. DOI:

Cooper C, Booth A, Varley-Campbell J, Britten N, Garside R. Defining the process to literature searching in systematic reviews: a literature review of guidance and supporting studies. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018 Aug 14;18(1):85. DOI:

Craven J, Levay P. Recording database searches for systematic reviews - what is the value of adding a narrative to peer-review checklists? a case study of NICE interventional procedures guidance. Evid Based Libr Inf Pract. 2011;6(4):72–87. DOI:

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Search filters [Internet]. The Network; 2011 [cited 15 Jan 2021]. <>.

Karagiannis T, Paschos P, Paletas K, Matthews DR, Tsapas A. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the clinical setting: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012 Mar 12;344:e1369. DOI:

Lefebvre C, Glanville J, Beale S, Boachie C, Duffy S, Fraser C, Harbour J, McCool R, Smith L. Assessing the performance of methodological search filters to improve the efficiency of evidence information retrieval: five literature reviews and a qualitative study. Health Technol Assess. 2017 Nov;21(69):1–148. DOI:

Damarell RA, May N, Hammond S, Sladek RM, Tieman JJ. Topic search filters: a systematic scoping review. Health Inf Libr J. 2019 Mar;36(1):4–40. DOI:

McKibbon KA, Wilczynski NL, Haynes RB, Hedges T. Retrieving randomized controlled trials from MEDLINE: a comparison of 38 published search filters. Health Inf Libr J. 2009 Sep;26(3):187–202. DOI:

InterTASC Information Specialists’ Sub-Group. The InterTASC Information Specialists’ Sub-Group search filter resource [Internet]. The Sub-Group; 2020 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Health Information Research Unit. Search filters for MEDLINE in Ovid syntax and the PubMed translation [Internet]. The Unit; 2016 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Waters E, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Hall BJ, Brown T, Campbell KJ, Gao Y, Armstrong R, Prosser L, Summerbell CD. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7(12):Cd001871. DOI:

Cahill K, Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 26(2):Cd003440. DOI:

Freak-Poli RL, Cumpston M, Peeters A, Clemes SA. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30(4):Cd009209. DOI:

Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, LaRocca RL. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28(2):Cd007651. DOI:

Guerra PH, Nobre MR, da Silveira JA, Taddei JA. School-based physical activity and nutritional education interventions on body mass index: a meta-analysis of randomised community trials - project PANE. Prev Med. 2014 Apr;61:81–9. DOI:

Jaime PC, Lock K. Do school based food and nutrition policies improve diet and reduce obesity? Prev Med. 2009 Jan;48(1):45–53. DOI:

Thomas RE, McLellan J, Perera R. School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30(4):Cd001293. DOI:

Foxcroft D, Ireland D, Lowe G, Breen R. Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Sep 7(9):Cd003024. DOI:

Wolfenden L, Jones J, Williams CM, Finch M, Wyse RJ, Kingsland M, Tzelepis F, Wiggers J, Williams AJ, Seward K, Small T, Welch V, Booth D, Yoong SL. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 4;10:Cd011779. DOI:

Wolfenden L, Nathan NK, Sutherland R, Yoong SL, Hodder RK, Wyse RJ, Delaney T, Grady A, Fielding A, Tzelepis F, Clinton-McHarg T, Parmenter B, Butler P, Wiggers J, Bauman A, Milat A, Booth D, Williams CM. Strategies for enhancing the implementation of school-based policies or practices targeting risk factors for chronic disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 29;11:Cd011677. DOI:

Wolfenden L, Goldman S, Stacey FG, Grady A, Kingsland M, Williams CM, Wiggers J, Milat A, Rissel C, Bauman A, Farrell MM, Legare F, Ben Charif A, Zomahoun HTV, Hodder RK, Jones J, Booth D, Parmenter B, Regan T, Yoong SL. Strategies to improve the implementation of workplace-based policies or practices targeting tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 14;11:CD012439. DOI:

White CM, Ip S, McPheeters M, Carey TS, Chou R, Lohr KN, Robinson K, McDonald K, Whitlock E. Using existing systematic reviews to replace de novo processes in conducting comparative effectiveness reviews. methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews. Rockville, MD: AHRQ Methods for Effective Health Care; 2008.

Lopez-Olivo MA, Tayar JH, Martinez-Lopez JA, Pollono EN, Cueto JP, Gonzales-Crespo MR, Fulton S, Suarez-Almazor ME. Risk of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologic therapy: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 Sep 5;308(9):898–908. DOI:

Sampson M, Shojania KG, Garritty C, Horsley T, Ocampo M, Moher D. Systematic reviews can be produced and published faster. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008 Jun;61(6):531–6. DOI:

Shojania KG, Sampson M, Ansari MT, Ji J, Doucette S, Moher D. How quickly do systematic reviews go out of date? a survival analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Aug 21;147(4):224–33. DOI:

Shojania KG, Sampson M, Ansari MT, Ji J, Garritty C, Doucette S, Rader T, Moher D. Updating systematic reviews: AHRQ publication no 07-0087. AHRQ Technical Reviews [Internet]. 16. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2007 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Bhaskar V, Chan HL, MacEachern M, Kripfgans OD. Updates on ultrasound research in implant dentistry: a systematic review of potential clinical indications. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2018 Jul;47(6):20180076. DOI:

Beller EM, Chen JK, Wang UL, Glasziou PP. Are systematic reviews up-to-date at the time of publication? Syst Rev. 2013 May 28;2:36. DOI:

Velez MP, Hamel C, Hutton B, Gaudet L, Walker M, Thuku M, Cobey KD, Pratt M, Skidmore B, Smith GN. Care plans for women pregnant using assisted reproductive technologies: a systematic review. Reprod Health. 2019 Jan 29;16(1):9. DOI:

Relevo R, Paynter R. Peer review of search strategies. AHRQ methods for effective health care [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012 [cited 1 Feb 2020]. <>.

Spry C, Mierzwinski-Urban M. The impact of the peer review of literature search strategies in support of rapid review reports. Res Synth Methods. 2018 Dec;9(4):521–6. DOI:

Tsamalaidze L, Stauffer JA, Brigham T, Asbun HJ. Postsplenectomy thrombosis of splenic, mesenteric, and portal vein (PST-SMPv): a single institutional series, comprehensive systematic review of a literature and suggested classification. Am J Surg. 2018 Dec;216(6):1192–204. DOI:

Banno M, Harada Y, Taniguchi M, Tobita R, Tsujimoto H, Tsujimoto Y, Kataoka Y, Noda A. Exercise can improve sleep quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5172. DOI:

Barakat S, Boehmer K, Abdelrahim M, Ahn S, Al-Khateeb AA, Villalobos NA, Prokop L, Erwin PJ, Fleming K, Serrano V, Spencer-Bonilla G, Murad MH. Does health coaching grow capacity in cancer survivors? a systematic review. Popul Health Manag. 2018 Feb;21(1):63–81. DOI:

Qi X, Yang M, Ren W, Jia J, Wang J, Han G, Fan D. Find duplicates among the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71838. DOI:

Bramer WM, Giustini D, de Jonge GB, Holland L, Bekhuis T. De-duplication of database search results for systematic reviews in EndNote. J Med Libr Assoc. 2016 Jul;104(3):240–3. DOI:

Rathbone J, Carter M, Hoffmann T, Glasziou P. Better duplicate detection for systematic reviewers: evaluation of systematic review assistant-deduplication module. Syst Rev. 2015 Jan 14;4:6. DOI:

Kwon Y, Lemieux M, McTavish J, Wathen N. Identifying and removing duplicate records from systematic review searches. J Med Libr Assoc. 2015 Oct;103(4):184–8. DOI:

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, Moher D, Peters MDJ, Horsley T, Weeks L, Hempel S, Akl EA, Chang C, McGowan J, Stewart L, Hartling L, Aldcroft A, Wilson MG, Garritty C, Lewin S, Godfrey CM, Macdonald MT, Langlois EV, Soares-Weiser K, Moriarty J, Clifford T, Tuncalp O, Straus SE. PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Oct 2;169(7):467–73. DOI:

Hutton B, Salanti G, Caldwell DM, Chaimani A, Schmid CH, Cameron C, Ioannidis JP, Straus S, Thorlund K, Jansen JP, Mulrow C, Catala-Lopez F, Gotzsche PC, Dickersin K, Boutron I, Altman DG, Moher D. The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions: checklist and explanations. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jun 2;162(11):777–84. DOI:

Stewart LA, Clarke M, Rovers M, Riley RD, Simmonds M, Stewart G, Tierney JF, PRISMA-IPD Development Group. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement. JAMA. 2015 Apr 28;313(16):1657–65. DOI:

Haddaway NR, Macura B, Whaley P, Pullin AS. ROSES RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Syntheses: pro forma, flow-diagram and descriptive summary of the plan and conduct of environmental systematic reviews and systematic maps. Environ Evid. 2018 7(1):7. DOI:

Stansfield C, O’Mara-Eves A, Thomas J. Text mining for search term development in systematic reviewing: a discussion of some methods and challenges. Res Synth Methods. 2017 Sep;8(3):355–65. DOI:

Hausner E, Guddat C, Hermanns T, Lampert U, Waffenschmidt S. Prospective comparison of search strategies for systematic reviews: an objective approach yielded higher sensitivity than a conceptual one. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Sep;77:118–24. DOI:

Paynter R, Banez LL, Berliner E, Erinoff E, Lege-Matsuura J, Potter S, Uhl S. EPC Methods: an exploration of the use of text-mining software in systematic reviews [Internet]. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2016 [cited 3 Feb 2020]. <>.






Original Investigation